Comparison of the evolution of physicochemical and microbial characteristics of the wastes, those most commonly generated in Algeria during composting

Document Type : Original Article


1 Laboratory of Industrial Safety Engineering and Sustainable Development “LISIDD”, Institute of Maintenance and Industrial Safety, University of Mohamed Benahmed, Oran2, Algeria

2 Department of Biosciences, Faculty of Science, 81300 UTM Johor Bahru, Malaysia

3 Department of Agroindustrial Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Udayana University, 80361 Badung, Bali, Indonesia


Purpose This paper focuses on monitoring the behavior of five different types of waste and humus during composting to see the impact of the nature of the substrate on the process and the quality of mature compost.
Method Green waste, coffee waste, household waste (Fraction of the household waste which having dimensions smaller than 8 mm) and humus were collected separately from different areas of Oran city, western Algeria, composted in windrows of 2 m long, 1 m wide, and 0.5 m high each for 150 days during the winter and spring period (2019-2020). The physicochemical parameters and characteristics were determined on the one hand, and on the other hand, the evolution of the microflora was monitored.
Results The results show a correlation between the parameters of each substrate. Furthermore, it was found that green waste, coffee waste, and household waste can give the best quality of compost if the process conditions are respected (maintenance of C/N ratio and moisture level). However, small waste and very small waste can also be used to amend green areas and public gardens. The results also showed that the concentration of pathogenic microorganisms such as Salmonella and Shigella did not exceed the NFU44-051 standard.
Conclusion The findings support the industrialization of waste valorization by composting as an effective technique for waste reduction given the current situation and encourage investors and promote the industrialization of waste recovery by composting in Algeria.


  • The characteristic of compost is directly related to the material used for composting.
  • Small waste and very small waste can also be used to amend green areas and public gardens
  • Composting proved to be an effective approach for valorization of biodegradable waste.


Aina MP (2006) Expertises des centres d’enfouissement des déchets urbains dans Les P.E.D: Contributions à l’élaboration d’un guide méthodologique et à sa validation expérimentale sur sites. Thèse de doctorat, Université de Limoges
Aina MP, Mama D, Adounkpe J, Chranay F, Deguenon J, Adjahatode F, Guy M (2012) Realization of the mass balance in the production of compost in developing Countries a comparative study. AJSR 65:24-41.
Andersen J, Boldrin A, Christensen T, Scheutz C (2010) Mass balances and life-cycle inventory for a garden waste windrow composting plant (Aarhus, Denmark): Wast Manag and Res. ISWA 28.
Arashiro T, Tom Richard S, Honeyman M (2002) Carbon, nutrient, and mass loss during composting. Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 62:15–24.
Askari A, Khanmirzaei A, Rezaei S (2020) Vermicompost enrichment using organic wastes: Nitrogen content and mineralization. Int J Recycl Org Waste Agric 9(2):151-160.
Bajon F, Coulomb I, Gillet R, Giloux P, Lachaud A, Van De Kerkhove JM (1994) Le Compostage Des Ordures Ménagères. Norvergies. Juillet 1994. 37, 1994
Barbara S, Pognani M, Adani F (2015) Evaluation of hormone-like activity of the dissolved organic matter fraction (DOM) of compost and digestate. J Sci Tot Env 514:314-321.
Bertoldi M, de Vallini G, Pera A (1983) The biology of composting: A review. Was Man  Res 1:157-176
Bouhadiba B, Hamou A, Hadjel M, Kehila Y, Matejka G (2014) New schemes of municipal solid waste management for the Wilaya of Oran, Algeria. IJEHSE
Chorolque A, Pellejero G, Sosa MC, Palacios J, Aschkar G, García-Delgado C, Jiménez-Ballesta, R (2021) Biological control of soil-borne phytopathogenic fungi through onion waste composting: Implications for circular economy perspective. IJEST.
Chu Z, Xiuhua F, Wenna W, Wei-chiao Hu (2019) Quantitative evaluation of heavy metals pollution hazards and estimation of heavy metals: Environmental costs in leachate during food waste composting. J Was Man 84:119-128.
Compaoré E, Nanéma LS (2010) Compostage et qualité du compost de déchets urbains solides de la ville de Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. TROPICULTURA 28 (4):232-237.
Dahmane S, Hadjel M (2012) Evaluation de la gestion des déchets ménagers et assimilés de la ville d’Oran. Thèse de Magister, Université des Sciences et de la Technologie d’Oran.
Derias FZ, Mekakia Mehdi M, Lounis Z (2020) Quantitative and qualitative characterization of municipal solid waste in western Algeria: Impact of population growth. IJTPPE 12(45):28-35
de Guardia A, Mallard P, Teglia C, Marin A, Le Pape C, Launay M, Benoist JC, Petiot C (2010) Comparison of five organic wastes regarding their behaviour during composting: Part 1, biodegradability, stabilization kinetics and temperature rise. J Was Man 30(3):402–414.
Ebid A, Ueno H, Ghoneim A (2007) Nitrogen mineralization kinetics and nutrient availability in soil amended with composted tea leaves, coffee waste and kitchen garbage. IJSS 2(2):96-106.
Edem K, Baba G, Feuillade-Cathalifaud G, Matejka G (2011) Caractérisation physique des déchets solides urbains à Lomé au Togo, dans la perspective du compostage décentralisé dans les quartiers.
French Association of Normalizations NF X31-151 AFNOR (1993) Sols— Sédiments—Boues de stations d’épuration. Mise en solution des éléments métalliques traces (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) par attaques acides. 139–145
Gajalakshmi S, Abbasi SA (2008) Solid waste management by composting: JSACREST 38(5):311–400.
Genevini P (1997) Heavy metal content in selected European commercial composts. JCSU 5(4):31-39.
Guangchun S, Xu J, Jiang Z, Li M, Li Q (2019) The Transformation of different dissolved organic matter subfractions and distribution of heavy metals during food waste and sugar cane leaves co-composting. J Was Man 87:636-644.
Guermoud NF, Ouadjnia FA, Taleb F, Addou A (2009) Municipal solid waste in Mostaganem city (Western Algeria). J Was Man 29(2):896–902.
Güiza R,  Mata-Alvarez J, Chimenos JM, Astals S (2015) The Role of additives on anaerobic digestion.  A review. Ren Sus Ene Rev 58:1486-1499.
Hiarhi M, Cozzolino V, Vinci G, Spaccini R, Piccolo R (2017) Molecular characteristics of water-extractable organic matter from different composted biomasses and their effects on seed germination and early growth of maize. J Sci Tot Env. 590/591:40-49.
Kumar MA, Pandey AK, Bundela PS, Khan J (2015) Co-composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste mixed with different bulking waste,  characterization of physicochemical parameters and microbial enzymatic dynamic. J Bior Tech 182:200-207.
Kumar MA, Wang Q, Huang H, Li R,  Shen F,  Lahori AH,  Wang P (2016) Effect of biochar amendment on greenhouse gas emission and bio-availability of heavy metals during sewage sludge co-composting. J Cle Pro 135:829-835.
Lasaridi K, Protopapa I, Kotsou M,  Pilidis G,  Manios T, Kyriacou A (2006) Quality assessment of composts in the greek market: The need for standards and quality assurance. J Env Man 80:58-65.
Ling L, Wang S, Guo X, Zhao T, Zhang B (2018) Succession and diversity of microorganisms and their association with physico-chemical properties during green waste thermophilic composting. J Was Man 73:101-112.
Lopes C, Herva M, Franco-Uría A, Roca E (2011) Inventory of heavy metal content in organic waste applied as fertilizer in agriculture: evaluating the risk of transfer into the food chain. J Env Sci Pollut Res Int. 18(6):918-939.
Lu Z, Sun X (2017a) Addition of seaweed and bentonite accelerates the two-stage composting of green waste. J Bior Tech 243:154-162.
Lu Z, Sun X (2017b) Using cow dung and spent coffee grounds to enhance the two-stage Co-composting of green waste. J Bior Tech 245:152-161.
Lu Z, Sun X (2018) Effects of bean dregs and crab shell powder additives on the composting of green waste. J Bior Tech 260:283-293.
Mahdi A, Azni I, Omar SR (2007) Physicochemical characterization of compost of the industrial tannery sludge. JESTEC 2(1):81–94
Manfredi EC, Flury B, Viviano G, Thakuri S, NathKhanal S, Kumar JP, Maskey RK (2010) Solid waste and water quality management models for Sagarmatha national park and buffer zone Nepal. JMRD 30(2):127-142.
Manios T (2004) The composting potential of different organic solid wastes: Experience from the Island of Crete. Environ Int 29(8):1079-1089. JEI 29 (8)
Margaritis MK, Psarras V, Panaretou AG, Thanos D, Sotiropoulos A (2018) Improvement of home composting process of food waste using different minerals. J Was Man 73:87-100.
Mustin M (1999) Le compost : Gestion de la matière organique. François Dubusc, Paris
Orhan I, Gozde Ozbayram E, Çağrı Akyol E, Erdem I, Gunel G, Bahar I (2020) Bacterial succession in the thermophilic phase of composting of anaerobic digestates. J Was and Biomass Valorization 11(3):841–49.
Pamela G, Tucker MD (2008) Agency for toxic substances and disease registry (ATSDR): Issue of Clinics in Chest Medicine.
Pellejero G, Julieta P, Emanuel V, Omar G, Luis A, Gabriela A, Chrorolque A, Francisco J, Jiménez-Ballesta R (2021) Effect of the application of compost as an organic fertilizer on a tomato crop (Solanum Lycopersicum L.) produced in the field in the Lower Valley of the Río Negro (Argentina).Int J Recycl Org Waste Agric 10 (2):145–55.
Scriban R, Arnaud A (1993) Biotechnologie. Lavoisier/Tec/Doc.
Shi-Peng W, Zhong XZ, Wang TT, Sun ZY, Tang YQ, Kida K (2017) Aerobic composting of distilled grain waste eluted from a Chinese spirit-making process: The effects of initial pH adjustment. J Bior Tech 245:778-785.
Souabi S, Aboulhassan A, Aboulam A, Morvan B (2007) Compostage des boues produites à la station d’épuration d’une huilerie, en mélange avec des déchets de jardin. INSA de Lyon 48:20-25.
Tahraoui Douma N, Matejka G (2016) Sorting-composting of biodegradable waste in the municipality of Chlef (Algeria): The Key steps. IJWR 6(2).
Tahraoui Douma N (2013) Valorisation par compostage des résidus solides urbains de la commune de Chlef, Algérie. Thèse de Doctorat, Université de Limoges
Vijayalaxmi J, Mohee R (2011) Evaluation of FTIR spectroscopy as a maturity index for herbicide-contaminated composts. IJEWM 9(1–2):89–99.