Investigating the effects of cow manure, vermicompost and Azolla fertilizers on hydraulic properties of saline-sodic soils

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

Soil Science and Engineering Department, University of Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Purpose Soil salinity and sodicity are among the factors involved in soil degradation, especially in arid and semi-arid areas of the world. The use of modifiers, including organic matters, can be considered as an appropriate strategy to improve the fertility of saline-sodic soils. 
Method In this study, saline-sodic control soil was collected from Karaj and mixed with three levels of 1%, 3% and 5% of cow manure, vermicompost and Azolla. The soil columns were then incubated at 20 °C and field capacity moisture for 5 months. The physical and chemical properties of the treatments were evaluated before and after incubation.
Results After the incubation period, the lowest salinity level was observed in 5% Azolla and vermicompost treatments. The highest amount of change in sodium absorption ratio was related to 5% cow manure treatment. There was an insignificant difference in moisture levels in a given suction among the different treatments. After the incubation period, salinity and sodium absorption decreased and increased in most of the treatments, respectively. Moreover, the decrease of saturation dehydration coefficient in the treatments revealed the disruption of soil structure and conversion of large pores to fine grains as a result of adding the mentioned organic matters.
Conclusion According to the results, cow manure at 1% level had no significant effect on soil properties. However, at higher levels, it had a negative effect on quality and conditions of the saline-sodic soil in terms of physical and chemical properties. In contrast, Azolla and vermicompost fertilizers at 5% proved to be suitable for correcting the saline-sodic soil.

Highlights

  • Soil salinity and sodicity are among the factors involved in soil degradation, especially in arid and semi-arid areas of the world.
  • The use of conditioners, including organic matter, is often a good solution for saline-sodic soils.
  • According to the results, cow manure at 1% level had no significant effect on soil properties. However, at higher levels, it had a negative effect on quality and conditions of the saline-sodic soil in terms of physical and chemical properties.
  •  In contrast, Azolla and vermicompost fertilizers at 5% proved to be suitable for correcting the saline-sodic soil.

Keywords


Aksakal EL, Serdar S, Angin I (2016) Effects of vermicompost application on soil aggregation and certain physical properties. L Degrad and Dev (LDD) 27: 983–995.
https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2350
Ali Mardani A, Delaware, MA, Golchin A (2012) The effect of adding organic and mineral compounds on some physical properties of a sodium soil. Soil Manag and Susta (1) - enable Production 1(2). (In Persian)
Carrow RN, Duncan RR (2011) Best management practices for saline and sodic turfgrass soils: Assessment and reclamation. CRC Press. Grass and forage Sci 68(4): 606-607.
https://doi.org/10.1111/gfs.12056
Chaney K, Swift RS (1986) Studies on aggregate stability of reformed soil aggregates. Eur J of Soil Sci 37: 337-343.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.1986.tb00036.x
Flagella Z, Cantore V, Giuliani MM, Tarantino E, De Caro A (2002) Crop salt tolerance: Physiological, yield and quality aspects. Recent Res Dev Plant Biol 2: 155-186
Gonçalo Filho F, da Silva Dias N, Suddarth SR, Ferreira JFS, Anderson RG, Dos Santos Fernandes C, de Lira RB, Neto MF, Cosme CR (2020) Reclaiming tropical saline-sodic soils with gypsum and cow Manure. Water 12(1): 2073-4441.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010057
Hanay A, Buyuksanmz F, Kiziloglu FM, Canbolat MV (2004) Reclamation of saline-sodic soils with gypsum and MSW compost. Compost Sci and Utilization 12: 175-179.
https://doi.org/10.1080/1065657X.2004.10702177
Jalali M, Ranjbar F (2009) Effects of sodic water on soil sodicity and nutrient leaching in poultry and sheep manure amended soils. Geoderma 153(1): 194-204.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2009.08.004
Joshi R, Vig AP, Singh J (2013) Vermicompost as a soil supplement to enhance growth, yield and quality of Teiticum aestivum L: A field study. Int J Recycl Org Waste in Agricult 2(16). https://doi.org/10.1186/2251-7715-2-16
Khatbaei M, Emami H, Astarai A, Photovat A (2014) The Effect of organic materials and plaster on some characteristics of corn in salt-sodium soil. Iranian J of Crop Res 12(4): 664-658. (In Persian)
Kirkham M (2005) Principles of soil and plant water relations. Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/C2013-0-12871-1
Klute A (1986) Water retention: Laboratory methods. Methods of soil analysis: Part 1- Physical and mineralogical methods, 635-662. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssabookser5.1.2ed.c26
Leogrande R, Vitti C (2019) Use of organic amendments to reclaim saline and sodic soils: A review. Arid L Res and Manag 33(1): 1-21.‏
https://doi.org/10.1080/15324982.2018.1498038
Li  FH, Keren R (2009) Calcareous sodic soil reclamation as affected by corn stalk application and incubation: A laboratory study. Pedosphere, 19(4): 465- 475.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S1002-0160(09)60139-9
McLean EO (1982) Soil pH and lime requirement. Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties, 199-224.
https://doi.org/10.2134/agronmonogr9.2.2ed.c12
Mitchell JP, Shennan C, Singer MJ, Peters DW, Miller RO, Prichard T, Grattan SR, Rhoades JD, May DM, Munk DS (2000) Impacts of gypsum and winter cover crops on soil physical properties and crop productivity when irrigated with saline water. Agric Water Manag 45(1): 55-71.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3774(99)00070-0
Mostafazadeh-Fard B, Heidarpour M, Aghakhani A, Feizi M (2007) Effects of irrigation water salinity and leaching on soil chemical properties in an arid region. Int J of Agric and Biol 9: 466-469
Qadir M, Oster JD (2004) Review, crop and irrigation management strategies for saline-sodic soils and waters aimed at environmentally sustainable agriculture. Sci of the Total Environ 323(1-3): 1-19.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2003.10.012
Qadir M, Ghafoor A, Murtaza G (2001) Use of saline-sodic waters through phytoremediation of calcareous saline-sodic soils. Agric Water Manag 50(3): 197-210.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3774(01)00101-9
Quirk JP (2001) The significance of the threshold and turbidity concentrations in relation to sodicity and microstructure. Australian J of Soil Res 39(6): 1185-1217.
https://doi.org/10.1071/SR00050
Rusta MJ, Golchin A, Siyadat H, Salehrastin N (2003) Effect of organic matter and mineral compounds on some chemical properties and biological activity of a sodium soil. Soil and Water Sci 16:1. (In Persian)
Sundha P, Basak N, Rai AK, Yadav RK, Sharma PC, Sharma, DK (2020) Can conjunctive use of gypsum, city waste composts and marginal quality water rehabilitate saline-sodic soils? Soil and Tillage Research 200: 104608.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2020.104608
Tazeh ES, Pazira E, Neyshabouri MR, Abbasi F, Abyaneh, HZ (2013) Effect of two organic amendments on EC, SAR and soluble ions concentration in a salinesodic soil. Int J of Biosci (IJB) 3(9): 55-68. https://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/3.9.55-68
Tejada M, Gonzales JL (2006) The relationships between erodibility and erosion in a soil treated with two organic amendments. Soil Tillage Res 91(1-2): 186-198.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2005.12.003
Valzano FP, Greene RSB, Murphy BW, Rengasamy P, Jarwal SD (2001) Effects of gypsum and stubble retention on the chemical and physical properties of a sodic grey Vertosol in western Victoria. Australian J of Soil Res 39(6): 1333-1347. https://doi.org/10.1071/SR00045
Walker DJ, Bernal MP (2008) The effects of olive mill waste compost and poultry manure on the availability and plant absorption of nutrients in a highly saline soil. Bio Resour Technol 99(2): 396-403.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2006.12.006
Wong VNL, Dalal RC, Greene RSB (2009) Carbon dynamics of sodic and saline soils following gypsum and organic material additions: A laboratory incubation. Appl Soil Ecology 41(1): 29-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2008.08.006
Yazdan Panah N, Pazira A, Neshat A, Mahmoud Abadi M (2013) Investigation of the effect of various correctional materials on the physico-chemical properties of saline and sodium soils. Q J of Drought 2(1). (In Persian)