Vermicompost enrichment using organic wastes: Nitrogen content and mineralization

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

Department of Soil Science, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran

Abstract

Purpose This study performed a feasibility assessment of nitrogen enrichment by some organic wastes through vermicomposting as well as its release as a bioavailable form over time.
Methods Soybean and canola wastes as well as the dairy blood powder of industrial slaughterhouse were used as organic wastes to enrich the vermicompost. Composted materials were incubated for nitrogen mineralization kinetic assessment by adjusting moisture content to 50% at 30 ˚C for 80 days. During the incubation, moisture was maintained by weighing. Subsamples were collected after 1, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 days of incubation.
Results Among the treatments, those for 25% dairy blood powder contained the highest nitrogen content (4.95 and 3.70% for chicken and cow blood powder, respectively). Nitrogen mineralization through 80 days of incubation ranged from 2.23% (for 50% canola waste treatment) to 2.57% (for 25% blood powder) of the total nitrogen. The mineralization rate ranged from 4.24 and 3.62 mg kg-1 day-1 for the compost containing 25% chicken and cow blood powder, respectively, to 0.94 and 0.84 mg kg-1 day-1 in canola and soybean waste, respectively, whereas those for the control treatment equaled 0.81 mg kg-1 day-1.
Conclusion Composts containing 25% blood powder were acceptable in terms of quantity and nitrogen release over time, and can serve as a reliable source of available nutrients in the soil.

Keywords


Adamtey N, Cofie O, Ofosu-Budu GK, Danso SKA, Forster D (2009) Production and storage of N-enriched co-compost. Waste Manage 29: 2429–2436. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.wasman.2009.04.014
Antil RS, Gerzabek MH, Haberhauer G, Eder G (2005) Long-term effects of cropped vs. fallow and fertilizer amendments on soil organic matter II. Nitrogen. J Plant Nutr Soil Sc 168: 212–218. https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln. 200421461
Baldock JA, Nelson PN (2000) Soil organic matter, in: Sumner ME (Ed.). Handbook of soil science. CRC Press. Chap. 2
Bremner JM (1996) Nitrogen-total, pp. 1085–1122, in Sparks DL, Page AL, Helmke PA, Loeppert RH, Soltanpour PN, Tabatabai MA, Johnston CT, Sumner ME eds Methods of soil analysis. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin
Bruun S, Luxhøi J, Magid J, De Neergaard A, Jensen LS (2006) A nitrogen mineralization model based on relationships for gross mineralization and immobilization. Soil Biol Biochem 38: 2712–2721. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio. 2006.04.023
Cabrera F, Martın-Olmedo P, Lopez R, Murillo JM (2005) Nitrogen mineralization in soils amended with composted olive mill sludge. Nutr Cycl Agroecosys 71: 249–258. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10705-004-6373-3
Campbell CA, La Fond GP, Iryshon AJ, Zentnet RP, Janzen HH (1991) Effect of cropping practices on the initial potential rate of N mineralization in a thin Black Chernozem. Can J Soil Sci 71: 43–53. https://doi.org/10. 4141/cjss91-004
Campbell CR, Plank CO (1992) Sample preparation. p. 1-12. In: Plank CO, (ed). Plant analysis reference procedures for the southern region of the United States. Georgia Agric. Expt. Sta., Southern Coop. Series Bull 368
Das D, Bhattacharyya P, Ghosh BC, Banika P (2016a) Bioconversion and biodynamics of Eisenia foetida in different organic wastes through microbial enriched vermiconversion technologies. Ecol Eng 86:154-161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2015.11.012
Das S, Deka P, Goswami L, Sahariah B, Hussain N, Bhattacharya SS (2016b) Vermi remediation of toxic jute mill waste employing Metaphireposthuma. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23: 15418-15431. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s11356-016-6718-x
Ebid A, Ueno H, Ghoneim A (2007) Nitrogen mineralization kinetics and nutrient availability in soil amended with composted tea leaves, coffee waste and kitchen garbage. Int J Soil Sci 2(2): 96-106. https://doi.org/10.3923/ijss. 2007.96.106
Frankenberger WT, Abdelmajid HM (1985) Kinetic parameters of nitrogen mineralization rate of legume crops incorporated into soil. Plant Soil 87: 257-271. https://doi. org/10.1007/BF02181865
Gale ES, Sullivan DM, Cogger CG, Bary AI, Hemphill DD, Myhre EA (2006) Estimating plant available nitrogen release from manures, composts, and specialty products. J. Environ. Qual 35:2321-2332. https://doi.org/10.2134/ jeq2006.0062
Garcia-Gil JC, Ceppi SB, Velasco MI, Polo A, Senesi N (2004) Long-term effects of amendment with municipal solid waste compost on the elemental and acidic functional group composition and pH-buffer capacity of soil humic acids. Geoderma 121:135–142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. geoderma.2003.11.004
Geisseler D, Miller KS, Aegerter BJ, Clark NE, Miyao EM (2019) Estimation of annual soil nitrogen mineralization rates using an organic nitrogen budget approach. Soil Sci Soc Am J 85(4): 1227-1235. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj 2018.12.0473
Golchin A (2016) Soil organic matter. Iranian Students Booking Agency, 294p
Griffin GF, Laine AF (1983) Nitrogen mineralization in soils previously amended with organic wastes. Agron J 75:124-128. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1983.00021962007500010031x
Jamshidi M, Zareian GR, BaniNeme J (2012) Mapping soil organic carbon for evaluating soils capability in retention and transport of contaminant elements in Fars and Khuzestan provinces. Final technical report (1783) Soil and Water Res Inst of Iran, No 42561/91
Keller T, Dexter A (2012) Plastic limits of agricultural soils as functions of soil texture and organic matter. Soil Res 50:7–17. https://doi.org/10.1071/SR11174
Khayamim F, Khademi H (2015) Spatial distribution of organic matter in surface soils of three climates in Esfahan province. Soil Researche 29:37-48 (In Persian)
Kirkby CA, Kirkegard JA, Richardson AE, Wade LJ, Blanchard C, Batten G (2011) Stable soil organic matter: A comparison of C:N:P:S ratios in Australian and other world soils. Geoderma 163:197-208. https://doi.org/10. 1016/j.geoderma.2011.04.010
Kumar K, Rosen CJ, Gupta SC (2002) Kinetics of nitrogen mineralization in soils amended with sugar beet processing by-products. Communic Soil Sci Plant Anal 33:3635-3651. https://doi.org/10.1081/CSS-120015912
Kumar V, Singh KP (2001) Enriching vermicompost by nitrogen fixing and phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Bioresour Technol 76(2):173–175. https://doi.org/10. 1016/S0960-8524(00)00061-4
Logsdon G (1994) Worldwide progress in vermicomposting. Biocycle 35 (10):63–65                                                                                
Masunga RH, Uzokwe VN, Mlay PD, Odeh I, Singh A, Buchan D, De Neve S (2016) Nitrogen mineralization dynamics of different valuable organic amendments commonly used in agriculture. Applied Soil Ecol 101:185–193. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2016.01.006
McGinnis MS, Wagger MG, Warren SL, Bilderback TE (2010) Nutrient contribution and release kinetics of vermicompost amended pine bark. Compost Sci Utili 18(2): 97-104. https://doi.org/10.1080/1065657X.2010. 10736941
Mohanty M, Reddy SK, Probert ME, Dalal RC, Rao SA, Menzies NW (2011) Modelling N mineralization from green manure and farmyard manure from a laboratory incubation study. Ecol Model 222:719–726. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2010.10.027
Motsara M, Roy RN (2008) Guide to laboratory establishment for plant nutrient analysis. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome
Nelson DW, Sommers LE (1996) Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter. In methods of soil analysis. (Eds Sparks DL, Page AL, Helmke PA, Loeppert RH, Soltanpour P N, Tabatabai MA, Johnston CT, Sumner ME 961–101 Soil Sci Soc Am, Madison, Wisconsin
Oades JM (1993) The role of soil biology in the formation, stabilization and degradation of soil organic matter. Geoderma 56:377-400. https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7061(93)90123-3
Oorts K, anlauwe BV, Merckx R (2003) Cation exchange capacities of soil organic matter fractions in a Ferric Lixisol with different organic matter inputs. Agr Ecosyst Environ 100:161-171. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8809(03)00190-7
Padmavathiamma PK, Li LY, Kumari UR (2008) An experimental study of vermin bio-waste composting for agricultural soil improvement. Bioresour Technol 99:1672–1681. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2007. 04.028
Paustian K, Agren GI, Bosatta E (1997) Modelling litter quality effects on decomposition and soil organic matter dynamics. In: Cadisch G, Giller KE (Eds.), Driven by Nature. Plant Litter Quality and Decomposition. CAB International, Wallingford
Quilty JR, Cattle SR (2011) Use and understanding of organic amendments in Australian agriculture: A review. Soil Res 49:1–26. https://doi.org/10.1071/SR10059
Raiesi F (2006) Carbon and N mineralization as affected by soil cultivation and crop residue in a calcareous wetland ecosystem in Central Iran. Agric Ecosyst Environ 112:3–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2005.07.002
Raiesi F, Kabiri V (2017) Carbon and nitrogen mineralization kinetics as affected by tillage systems in a calcareous loam soil. Ecol Eng 106:24–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. ecoleng.2017.05.023
Ramos CG, Querol X, Damora AC, Pires KCJ, Schneider IAH, Oliveira LPS, Kautzmann RM (2017) Evaluation of the potential of volcanic tock waste from Southern Brazil as a natural soil fertilizer. J Clean Prod 142(4):2700-2706. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.11.006
Rao MS, Kamalnath M, Umamaheswari R, Rajinikanth R, Prabu P, Priti K, Grace GN, Chaya MK, Gopalakrishnan C (2017) Bacillus subtilis IIHR BS-2 enriched vermicompost controls root knot nematode and soft rot disease complex in carrot. Sci Hort 218:56-62. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2017.01.051
Sahraie M, Zarafshani K (2015) Determining the constraints and challenges of vermicompost technology development: the case of active sites in Kermanshah Province. Rural Development Strategies 2(3)319-336. (In Persian)
Samavat S (2007) Organic matter status report in Iran soils. Technical report. Soil and Water Research Institute of Iran (In Persian)
Serna MD, Pomares F (1992) Nitrogen mineralization of sludge-amended soil. Bioresour Technol 39:258-290. https://doi.org/10.1016/0960-8524(92)90218-M
Singh A, Sharma S (2002) Composting of a crop residue through treatment with microorganisms and subsequent vermicomposting. Bioresour Technol 85:107–111. https://doi. org/10.1016/S0960-8524(02)00095-0
Song X, Liu M, Wua D, Qi L, Ye C, Jiao J, Hu F (2014) Heavy metal and nutrient changes during vermicomposting animal manure spiked with mushroom residues. Waste Manag 34:1977-1983. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman. 2014.07.013
Soodaei Mashaei S, Aliasgharzadeh N, Uostan S (2007) Kinetic of nitrogen mineralization in compost, vermicompost and cow manure treated soil. J Sci Tech of Agri Nat Reso 42:405-414
Sparks DL (1989) Kinetics of soil chemical processes. Academic Press. San Diego. California. USA. Stewart DPC, Cameron KC, Cornforth IS (1988) Inorganic-N release from spent mushroom compost under laboratory and field conditions. Soil Biol Biochem 30:1689-1699. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0038-0717(97)00264-2
Stewart DPC, Cameron KC, Cornforth IS, Main BE (1998) Release of sulphate, potassium, calcium and magnesium from spent mushroom compost under laboratory conditions. Biol. Fert. Soil 26:146-151
Suthar S (2006) Potential utilization of guar gum industrial waste in vermicompost production. Bioresour Technol 97(18):2474–2477. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech. 2005.10.018
Suthar S (2007) Vermicomposting potential of Perionyx sansibaricus (Perrier) in different waste materials. Bioresour Technol 98(6):1231–1237. https://doi.org/10. 1016/j.biortech.2006.05.008
Tejada M, Hernandez MT, Garcia C (2009) Soil restoration using composted plant residues: Effects on soil properties. Soil Till Res 102:109–117. https://doi.org/10. 1016/j.still.2008.08.004
Whalen JK, Chang C (2002) Macro aggregate characteristics in cultivated soils after 25 annual manure applications. Soil Sci Soc Am J 66:1637–1647. https://doi.org/10.2136/ sssaj2002.1637
Williams J, Ross P, Bristow K (1992) Prediction of the Campbell water retention functions from texture, structure and organic matter. In Van Genuchten MTh, Leij FJ (eds). Indirect methods for estimating hydraulic properties of unsaturated soils. Proceedings of International Workshop on Indirect Methods for Estimating the Hydraulic Properties of Unsaturated Soils. Riverside, California, October 11–13, 1989. US salinity Laboratory, Agricultural research Service, US Department of Agriculture, Riverside, California