Cultivation of straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) on oil palm empty fruit bunch growth medium

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Agriculture Faculty, Agricultural Engineering Department, Lampung University, Bandar Lampung, Lampung Province, Indonesia

2 Agriculture Faculty, Soil Science Department, Lampung University, Bandar Lampung, Lampung Province, Indonesia

3 Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department, Mississippi State University, USA

Abstract

Purpose The research aimed to study the efects of size reduction and composting duration of empty fruit bunches (EFB) on straw mushroom production, and to examine the doses of fertilizers commonly used among farmers.
Methods The experiment was done in two stages. The frst stage was for identifying the optimum physical parameters of EFB, and the second stage focused on enhancing the performance of EFB chosen based on the fndings of the frst experiment. A randomized complete block design with 3×3 factorial arrangement in both stages of the study used the same approach. The first stage had three levels of aggregate sizes factor (S) and three levels of composting duration factor (C) of EFB. The second stage had three levels of NPK factor (N) and three levels of organic fertilizer factor (O).
Results Whole stalk EFB had the highest productivity of 2458.47±1015.23 g m−2. The supplementation of fertilizers increased the EFB decomposition rate and productivity to 2950.24±208.50 g m−2, and nutritive values (particularly for protein content of 41.00±3.79%). Averaged biological conversion efciency (BCE) was also improved from 3.61±1.22 to 6.56±0.46%.
Conclusions EFB did not need to be cut into smaller pieces, and should not be composted for more than 8 days, because there was a tendency to decrease yield. Supplemental fertilizers increased the decomposition rates of EFB as well as the yield and nutritive values of straw mushroom. BCE can potentially be improved by increasing the dosages of fertilizers.

Keywords


Abdullah A, Sulaiman F, Gerhauser H (2011) Characterization of oil palm empty fruit bunches for fuel application. J Phys Sci 22(1):1– 24. http://jps.usm.my/characterisation-of-oil-palm-empty-fruit -bunches/. Accessed on 19 Feb 2018

Amir S, Jouraiphy A, Meddich A, El Gharous M, Winterton P, Hafdi M (2010) Structural study of humic acids during composting of activated sludge-green waste: elemental analysis, FTIR and 13C NMR. J Hazard Mater 177(1–3):524–529. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.12.064

Apetorgbor AK, Apetorgbor MM, Derkyi NSA (2015) Comparative studies on growth and yield of oil palm mushroom, Volvariella volvacea (Bull. Ex. Fr.) Sing on diferent substrates. Greener J Agric Sci 5(5):177–189. https://doi.org/10.15580/ GJAS.2015.5.071115091

Arifestiananda S, Setiyono, Soedradjad R (2015) The efect of medium composting time and dosage of chicken manure on the yields and protein content of paddy straw mushroom. Berkala Ilmiah PERTANIAN (Agric Sci Bull) 10(10) (in Indonesian). http:// repository.unej.ac.id/bitstream/handle/123456789/71410/SEKAR NINGRUM%20ARIFESTIANANDA.pdf?sequence=1. Accessed 12 Mar 2016 

Bagewadi ZK, Mulla SI, Ninnekar HZ (2017) Optimization of laccase production and its application in delignifcation of biomass. Int J Recycl Org Waste Agric 6:351–365. https://doi.org/10.1007/s4009 3-017-0184-4

Banik S, Nandi R (2004) Efect of supplementation of rice straw with biogas residual slurry manure on the yield, protein and mineral contents of oyster mushroom. Ind Crop Prod 20:311–319. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2003.11.003

Belewu MA, Belewu KY (2005) Cultivation of mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) on banana leaves. Afr J Biotechnol 4(12):1401–1403. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJB2005.000-3177

Bledzki AK, Gassan J (1999) Composites reinforced with cellulose based fbres. Prog Polym Sci 24:221–274. https://doi.org/10.1016/ S0079-6700(98)00018-5

Chang SH (2014) An overview of empty fruit bunch from oil palm as feedstock for bio-oil production. Biomass Bioenerg 62:174–181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2014.01.002

Chang ST, Wasser SP (2017) The cultivation and environmental impact of mushrooms. In: Oxford Research encyclopedia of environmental science. Oxford University Press, Oxford. https://doi. org/10.1093/acrefore/9780199389414.013.231 (http://environmentalscience.oxfordre.com)

Cheung PCK (2013) Mini-review on edible mushrooms as source of dietary fber: preparation and health benefts. Food Sci Hum Wellness 2:162–166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fshw.2013.08.001

Dalimin MN (1995) Renewable energy update: Malaysia. Renew Energy 6(4):435–439. https://doi.org/10.1016/0960- 1481(94)00070-M

Datta R (1981) Acidogenic fermentation of lignocelluloses acid yield and conversion of component. J Biotechnol Bioeng 23:2167– 2170. https://doi.org/10.1002/bit.260230921

Dermiyati, Jamalam L, Banuwa IR, Triyono S, Maulida O, Agsary D (2015) Application of organonitrofos and inorganic fertilizer on Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in ultisol soil. J Trop Soils 20(3):167–172. https://doi.org/10.5400/jts.2015.20.3.167

Faostat (2019) Food and agriculture organization. http://www.fao.org/ faostat/en/#data/QC. Aceessed 19 Jan 2019 Fard HS, Toghyani M, Tabeidian SA (2014) Efect of oyster mushroom wastes on performance, immune responses and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens. Int J Recycl Org Waste Agric 3:141–146. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40093-014-0076-9

Fasidi IO, Akwakwa DO (1996) Growth requirements of Volvariella speciosa (Fr. ex. Fr.) Sing., a Nigerian mushroom. Food Chem 55(2):165–168. https://doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(95)00083-6

Fazaeli H, Varzeneh HS, Farahpoor A, Moayyer A (2014) Recycling of mushroom compost wheat straw in the diet of feedlot calves with two physical forms. Int J Recycl Org Waste Agric 3:65. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40093-014-0065-z

Hayawin ZN, Astimar AA, Anis M, Ibrahim MH, Khalil HPSA, Ibrahim Z (2012) Vermicomposting of empty fruit bunch with addition of palm oil mill efuent solid. J Oil Palm Res 24:1542– 1549. http://jopr.mpob.gov.my/vermicomposting-of-empty-fruit -bunch-with-addition-of-palm-oil-mill-efuent-solid/. Accessed 24 April 2018

Helrich K (1990) Ofcial methods of analysis of the AOAC, 15th edn, vol 1. Association of Ofcial Analytical Chemists, Inca, USA. ISSN 0066-96IX Hendritomo HI (2010) Jamur konsumsi berkhasiat obat (Edible mushroom possessing medicinal value). Lily Publisher, Yogyakarta

Hoe TK, Sarmidi MR, Alwee SSRS, Zakaria ZA (2016) Recycling of oil palm empty fruit bunch as potential carrier for biofertilizer formulation. J Teknologi Sci Eng 78(2):165–170. https://doi. org/10.11113/jt.v78.7375

Ichsan CN, Harun F, Ariska N (2011) Karakteristik pertumbuhan dan hasil jamur merang (Volvariella volvacea L.) pada medium tanam dan konsentrasi pupuk biogreen yang berbeda. J Floratek 6:171–180 (in Indonesian)

Jeznabadi EK, Jafarpour M, Eghbalsaied S (2016) King oyster mushroom production using various sources of agricultural wastes in Iran. Int J Recycl Org Waste Agric 5:17–24. https://doi. org/10.1007/s40093-015-0113-3

Jouraiphy A, Amir S, El Gharous M, Revel JC, Hafdi M (2005) Chemical and spectroscopic analysis of organic matter transformation during composting of sewage sludge and green plant waste. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad 56:101–108. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2005.06.002

Kananam W, Suksaroj TT, Suksaroj C (2011) Biochemical changes during oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) empty fruit bunches composting with decanter sludge and chicken manure. ScienceAsia 37:17– 23. https://doi.org/10.2306/scienceasia1513-1874.2011.37.017

Kavitha B, Rajannan G, Jothimani P (2013) Utilization of empty fruit bunch of oil palm as alternate substrate for the cultivation of mushroom. Int J Sci Environ Tech 2(5):839–846. http://www. ijset.net/journal/157.pdf.  Accessed 21 Nov 2017

Kurtzman RH (2010) Pasteurization of mushroom substrate and other solids. Afr J Environ Sci Technol 4(13):936–941. http://www. academicjournals.org/AJEST. Accessed 10 Apr 2018

Marlina L, Sukotjo S, Marsudi S (2015) Potential of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) as media for Oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation. Proc Chem 16:427–431. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.proche.2015.12.074

Mayun IA (2007) Pertumbuhan jamur merang (Volvariella volvacea) pada berbagai medium tumbuh. Agritrop 26(3):124–128 (in Indonesian)

Ministry of Agriculture (2017) Basis data statistik pertanian (in Indonesian). http://aplikasi.deptan.go.id//bdsp/index.asp

Mohamed MF, Refaei EFS, Abdalla MMA, Abdelgalil SH (2016) Fruiting bodies yield of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus columbinus) as afected by diferent portions of compost in the substrate. Int J Recycl Org Waste Agric 5:281–288. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s40093-016-0138-2

Muryanto Triwahyuni E, Abimanyu H, Cahyono A, Cahyono ET, Sudiyani Y (2015) Alkaline delignifcation of oil palm empty fruit bunch using black liquor from pre-treatment. Proc Chem 16:99–105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proche.2015.12.032

Nugroho SG, Lumbanraja J, Dermiyati Triyono S, Ismono H (2012) Optimum ratio of fresh manure and grain size of phosphate rock mixture in a formulated compost for organomineral NP fertilizer. J Trop Soils 17(2):121–128. https://doi.org/10.5400/jts.2012.v17i2 .121-128

Omar R, Idris A, Yunus R, Khalid K, Isma MIA (2011) Characterization of empty fruit bunch for microwave-assisted pyrolysis. Fuel 90(4):1536–1544

Onuoha CI, Oyibo G, Judith E (2009) Cultivation of straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) using some agro-waste material. J Am Sci 5(5):135–138. https://doi.org/10.7537/marsjas050509.17

Pandey A (2003) Solid-state fermentation. Biochem Eng J 13:81–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1369-703X(02)00121-3

Rahmanda R (2014) Pertumbuhan jamur merang (Volvariella volvacea) menggunakan media tanam serabut kelapa sebagai sumber belajar biologi sma kelas x pada materi pembelajaran jamur. JUPEMASI-PBIO 1(1):103–105 (in Indonesian)

Rajapakse P (2011) New cultivation technology for paddy straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea). In: Proc 7th Int Conf Mushroom Biol Mushroom Prod (ICMBMP7) 2011. https://www. researchgate.net/publication/268410626_New_cultivation_ technology_for_paddy_straw_mushroom_Volvariella_volva cea. Accessed 16 Sept 2017

Reyes RG (2000) Indoor cultivation of paddy straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea, in crates. Mycologist 14(4):174–176. https:// doi.org/10.1016/S0269-915X(00)80037-3

Reyes RG, Eguchi F, Higaki TIM (1998) Physiological considerations for efcient mycelial colonization of Philippine strains of Volvariella volvacea. J Wood Sci 44(5):408–413

Riduwan M, Hariyono D, Nawawi M (2013) Pertumbuhan dan hasil jamur merang (Volvariella volvacea) pada berbagai sistem penebaran bibit dan ketebalan medium. J Produksi Tanaman 1(1):70–79 (in Indonesian)

Rizki M, Tamai Y (2011) Efects of diferent nitrogen rich substrates and their combination to the yield performance of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). World J Microbiol Biotechnol 27:1695–1702. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11274-010-0624-z

Sánchez C (2004) Modern aspects of mushroom culture technology. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 64:756–762. https://doi. org/10.1007/s00253-004-1569-7

Sreekala MS, Kumaran MG, Thomas S (1997) Oil palm fbers: morphology, chemical composition, surface modifcation, and mechanical properties. J Appl Polym Sci 66:821–835. https ://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4628(19971031)66:5%3c821 :AID-APP2%3e3.0.CO;2-X

Sudirman LI, Sutrisna A, Listiyowati S, Fadli L, Tarigan B (2011) The potency of oil palm plantation wastes for mushroom production. Proc 7th Int Conf Mushroom Biol Mushroom Prod (ICMBMP7). http://repository.ipb.ac.id/bitstream/handle/12345 6789/56530/proceeding%20mushrom%20biologi%20%28lis dar%29.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Sudiyani Y, Styarini D, Triwahyuni E, Sudiyarmanto Kiky C, Sembiring KC, Aristiawan Y, Abimanyu H, Han MH (2013) Utilization of biomass waste empty fruit bunch fber of palm oil for bioethanol production using pilot—scale unit. Energy Proc 32:31–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2013.05.005

Sukendro L, Gunawan AW, Dharmaputra OS (2001) Pengaruh waktu pengomposan limbah kapas terhadap produksi jamur merang. J Microbiol Indonesia 6(1) (in Indonesian)

Sunandar B (2010) Budidaya jamur merang. BPTP Jawa Barat, BPPP Kementan, Jakarta (in Indonesian)

Tabi ANM, Zakil FA, Fauzai WNFM, Ali N, Hassan O (2008) The usage of empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palm pressed fbre (PPF) as substrates for the cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus. J Teknologi 49(F):189–196

Thiribhuvanamala G, Krishnamoorthy S, Manoranjitham K, Praksasm V, Krishnan S (2012) Improved techniques to enhance the yield of paddy straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) for commercial cultivation. Afr J Biotechnol 11(64):12740–12748. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJB11.4066

Tye YY, Lee KT, Wan Abdullaha WN, Leh CP (2014) The efect of various pre-treatment methods on oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and kenaf core fbers for sugar production. Proc Environ Sci 20:328–335. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proenv.2014.03.041

Vargas LIR, Hepperly PR (1986) Assessment of Chinese straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) fungal competitors on sugarcane bagasse. In: Proc. Int’l Sym. scientifc and technical aspects of cultivating edible fungi. The Penna. State Univ., University Park, USA, July 1986

Viniegra-González G, Favela-Torres E, Aguilar CN, Romero-Gómez S, Díaz-Godínez G, Augur C (2003) Advantages of fungal enzyme production in solid state over liquid fermentation systems. Biochem Eng J 13:157–167. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1369 -703X(02)00128-6

Williams BC, McMullan JT, McCahey S (2001) An initial assessment of spent mushroom compost as a potential energy feedstock. Bioresour Technol 79:227–230. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960 -8524(01)00073-6

Wood DA, Leatham GF (1983) Lignocellulose degradation during the life cycle of Agaricus bisporus. FEMS Microbiol Lett 20:421– 424. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6968.1983.tb00160

Wan Razali WA, Baharuddin AS, Talib AT, Sulaiman A, Naim MN, Hasan MA, Shirai Y (2012) Degradation of oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) fbre during composting process using in-vessel composter. BioResources 7(4):4786–4805. http://bioresourcesjou rnal.com. Accessed 16 Sept 2017

Zakhary JW, El-Mahdy AR, Abo-Bakr TM, Tabey-Shehata AME (1984) Cultivation and chemical composition of the paddy-straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea). Food Chem 13:265–276. https ://doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(84)90090-6

Zulkiplea N, Maskata MY, Hassana O (2016) Pre-treatment of oil palm empty fruit fber (opefb) with aqueous ammonia for high production of sugar. Proc Chem 18:155–161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. proche.2016.01.024